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Good leadership is key to transformation.

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When a nation has the right leaders, the nation stands a brighter chance of getting it right.

That’s why a good leader appreciates the importance of putting national interest above personal gains. When a leader fails to show requisite political will to make the lives of the people better, sooner or later suspicions and distrust sets in.

If uneasy lies the head that wears the crown, unsecured are the feet that walk the ground. Nigerians have been unsecured for many years.

For decades, Nigeria has suffered the disease that comes with bad leadership. Unsure of the future, everyone struggles for his or her own food, job, house, light, road, security, and life- the government seems far away, lost in its own dance of democracy.

Leadership has been so bad in this country that a little less of what is bad is seen as a big break into the domain of good leadership. But is it? Are we on track? Are we there yet?

Since the inception of democracy, Nigerians have continued to have leaders who have failed to live up to the values and ideals of the Nigerian dream. Each time a leader comes with a vision (if any), vested interests come with a mission; the stronger of the two always wins.

Nigerians, we must fight the good cause- the people’s cause where the need for true transformation and true change are needed the most.

We must fight poverty and unemployment. We must fight waste and corruption. We must fight ourselves, uprooting what is ignoble and virulent from inside us.

This is no time to play ethnic, religious, or party politics. This is no time to protect personal egos while the nation bleeds. This is no time to win arguments while national unity, peace, and progress loses.

Regardless of the party or candidate you voted for, or supported, or prayed for, Nigeria as a nation won the elections. Nigeria never lost because democracy triumphed, at least as reported by local and international observers.

It’s high time we all became Nigerians, not just Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo, Ijaw, Ishan, Egun, Fulani, or whatever Ethnic group or tribe we belong to. It’s high time we held our leaders responsible and accountable, to the balls.

Let’s play ball.

This article was first published on Nigerian Youth Platform.

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Political Paralysis and Socio-Economic Underdevelopment as Federalism in Nigeria Refuses to Evolve by Senator Ihenyen

It was just after having lunch today I got a Facebook notification of a tag by Chima Williams Iheme. A learned friend and colleague, Chima had just published an insightful article on Facebook. Titled How a redefinition of the Nigerian federalism could help jump-start its economy: a quick reminder to all delegates to the ongoing national conference‘, it was a great piece on the topical issue of federalism in Nigeria. To be sure, I also strongly believe in true federalism. It provides a great opportunity for the socio-economic and political liberation of Nigerians. Nigeria is ripe for a New Federalism that devolves power to the states, and local governments.

I was going to drop this piece as a comment on Facebook. But I eventually decided to post it here as an article as I journey back to Yaba from Allen after a busy day. In this exposition, I will try to throw some light on the concept of federalism itself, and how it naturally evolves with time as the nation develops. Whenever question of federalism is raised in national debates, a lot of people think federalism is static, or should be. I will try to show how federalism has been changing even in the United States. In this way, you may begin to realise that the problem with Nigerian federalism is that it has refused to evolve for decades now.

Federalism sprouts from the ‘Federalists’, the idea that governmental powers are shared between the central governing authority, and other political units, such as states. Over centuries, even in the United States from where we borrowed our current federal system, federalism has been taking different forms. Some scholars have described these forms as including dual federalism, cooperative federalism, creative federalism, fiscal federalism, and new federalism, etc.

It is true that we borrowed the federal system from the United States (US). And as an “imported” concept, we appear to have been doing a bad job with it. That may be because that’s exactly how the Nigerian government wants it to be operated: a powerful Federal government vs weak and dependent State governments. The problem with federalism in Nigeria is that it has refused to evolve as the nation evolves. It has been static, and sometimes anti-progressive and backward. Sometimes, anachronistic.

In American history, federalism has constantly shifted and changed form over the years. First, we must appreciate that in a federal form of government, both the federal and state governments derive their powers from the people. History teaches us that before the colonies from Britain attained independence in America, the early Federalists favoured a strong national government. They strongly supported the arrangement whereby the powers allocated to the central government in the Constitution was more, making the states less powerful. With a powerful central government, the Federalists also approved a bicameral legislature. This was to ensure that the direct power to rule was out of the
common man’s hands. Why? The Federalists didn’t consider the common man fit to govern the country. Nigeria had practised this type of federalism under the 1960 Constitution. But since the unitary system of government was introduced by the first military administration in Nigeria, successive administrations have been crawling towards true federalism. Secondly, when the FG appear to be shying away from practising true federalism, it may also be that no administration wants to be remembered for being responsible for “breaking Nigeria”. The Civil War had sent warning signs to the Federal government on possible dangers of devolving powers to regions. Yet this is one reality that Nigerians tend to forget in a hurry. To put it bluntly, the FG is scared. That’s why any proposed resource control, state police, etc sends jitters to the FG. Sadly, this stand compromises the limitless potentials that true federalism could unleash in a country battling with poverty.

In the US, as time passed, the federalists’ views have had to change. They now embrace a more revolutionary federalism, the kind that promotes freedom, and equal opportunities. To ensure that all federating units remain together, the rule of law, separation of powers and protection of minority rights and individual rights generally, became sacred. These progressive principles are largely lacking in Nigeria. And it largely informs the state of political tension in the country. As a matter of fact, all the three major ethnic groups have at certain points in Nigerian history threatened to break away or secede from the unhealthy Federation.

From a Nigerian perspective, I will quickly brush through three of these forms. Dual Federalism involves the principle that the federal government and the state government share power but the Federal Government is more powerful. This is essentially how most Federations operate, including the US. The governmental levels are separate but with equal powers to achieve a balance. Some ways in which this balance was achieved was by what is known as the concurrent powers. In these powers, the powers are shared between the state and federal government.

It is notable however that as the US evolved from a union of states in form to a nation-state in substance over the years, its federal system also evolved. Thus, the division of powers into exclusive and concurrent powers naturally became less distinctive. This was because there was a common vision: to create a powerful nation where every American citizen had equal rights and opportunities for self-empowerment, and national advancement. In Nigeria, most politicians are divided by the unhealthy politics of party, religion and ethnicity, but of course, united in corruption. This ensures that the common vision as entrenched in the Constitution is neglected.

Later in the history of the United States, Dual Federalism necessarily evolved into Cooperative Federalism. Cooperative federalism involved a governmental arrangement whereby all the levels of government work together to solve problems that are common to them. Interestingly, in history, cooperative federalism was most popular in the 1930’s. This was necessary following the Great Depression. It was practised for another 40 years, lasting up until the 1970’s. Being a time of national crises, no government of any responsible country would afford to be engaging in power struggles when both the central and state government, including local government, faced common problems. Here, government at all levels work together to create programmes that were implemented nationwide. In Nigeria today for instance, we are facing serious national security issues, particularly terrorism. How has the Federal government worked closely with the state governments to ensure a total fight against terrorism especially in terms of prevention? Has the Federal government created a unified action plan, especially with inputs from the state governments in the north-eastern part of Nigeria? Apart from terrorism, there are other serious national issues that commonly affects the entire nation, but we don’t see the three levels of government working together. The Child Rights Act is one good example. Sadly, we have seen majority of our northern state governments resist the Act by not domesticating it in their states mainly to protect religious practices, and customs of the people. Of course under the 1999 Constitution of the FRN (as amended), they are lawfully right. But this is at the price of child rights violation, child slavery, poor access to quality education, gender inequality, and massive poverty in these northern states. The time that we are now as a nation-state requires a great measure of cooperation among all levels of governments. This is no time to play politics, and ride on the ass called the law. Working together is key.

Apart from cooperative federalism, we also have what is now described as the New Federalism. It evolved from the US after the election that brought Ronald Reagan to power in the 1980s. Here, more powers are given to the state. This is meant to make the states more powerful in areas that directly affected the people such as agriculture, education, health etc, while the central government took care of national security, currency, international affairs etc, to create a balance in the Federation. In the US for instance, under Reagan’s government, grants that were been given to the states were blocked. This is what we call Federal Allocations to states in Nigeria. Under the New Federalism, the state governments were entitled to decide what they wanted to spend their money on. Also, this structure brought about great devolution of powers to other political units. This has been described as “Devolution Revolution”.

Lastly, we also have what is called Creative Federalism. It gave more powers to the central government by allowing it directly provide for the needs of the people. In effect, the state governments were weakened since they were being bypassed by the central government. Therefore, creative federalism bring about direct interference in the welfare of the inhabitants of states nationwide. The US applied this type of federalism under Lydon Johnson, and the Nigerian presidency under various administrations continue to also apply it too. For instance, all the poverty alleviation programmes of the Federal government in Nigeria are products of creative federalism. Often times, the presidency constitutes various Presidential Tasks Forces on matters that directly interfere in state government’s businesses. Although the Nigerian people do benefit from some of such programmes, it ends up weakening the other levels of government. Little wonder most Nigerians do not even know what their Local Government Chairman is called, or know his programmes, if any, for the local government area. To keep the state and local governments content with such interferences, the Federal government used federal allocations to stop them from asking questions. In Nigeria today, state and local governments do not question the Federal government on the details of how it makes and spends money from the national treasury. The Federal allocations would do, I guess.

From my brief exposition, I hope we can begin to appreciate that federalism in form is not the same as federalism in substance. Sadly, in form and substance, Nigerian federalism is unhealthy. It is not progressive. We need to embrace a more democratic federalism (yes, democratic federalism) that can unleash the potentials of all the constituent parts of the Nigerian Federation. It is only in this way that we can all begin to witness real economic growth and development, not just growth. This is the promise of the New Federalism.

Unfortunately, the ongoing National Conference may not provide the trusted avenue for the needed drastic change in our federal structure. As far as its resolutions would be subjected to the take of the National Assembly, it is bound to join the other web-infested communiques from past Conferences of similar nature. It is the political will that we have always lacked in the affairs of this potentially great nation, not the ideas or solutions.

We must however realise that Nigeria as a nation-state is not where it was in 1960. It is not also in the 80s. We are inside the second decade of the 21st century. The more the government hold the Nigerian people back by making us experience recurring political paralysis, and socio-economic underdevelopment for the myopic purpose of maintaining the current lopsided structure, the more it risks worsening disunity across the Federation. Our very poor Human Development Index (HDI) showing the poor living standards that which most Nigerians live with says it all. Potentials remain largely untapped. There are no equal opportunities, and no rule of law. The government will need to take the future of this nation-state more seriously. We are not taking our future seriously. In thinking about the greatness of the next generation, we will also be securing our own greatness.

We All Have the Right to Self-Determination: the Speech on Tolerance, and Rule of Law by Alh. Nurudeen Lemu

Alh. Nurudeen Lemu, a delegate from the Supreme Council for Islamic Affairs. As a delegate, and as a people representing people of faith in God from the Islamic perspective, one thing we believe is that God will protect the community that stands for justice even if they are not Muslims and God will not protect the community that goes contrary to justice even if they call themselves Muslims.

God is not a religious bigot. He is not a male chauvinist. He is not an ethnocentric tribalist. God is not the oppressor of anyone. God is with those who care; those who want for others those things they want for themselves.

One tendency for people who claim to follow a religion is to slide into the position of believing that we are better than the others. We overestimate our virtues and underestimate the goodness in others. The tendency is for us to
become spiritually arrogant; to forget that others are people like us.

There is always a tension between representing our religious communities or our ethnic communities and our loyalty to the virtues and values and teachings of our religion even those lofty ideals of our ethnic groups.

It is our prayer that delegates will try and ensure that the spiritual strength we have in us will keep us from not getting angry and not allowing our bitterness from others to make us sail from justice. It is in this vein and as a delegate from the Supreme Council of Islamic Affairs, we condemn the murder of all Christians, we condemn the murder of all Muslims. Not because they are Christians or Muslims, but because they are human beings – creatures of God.

There is no compulsion in religion. We all own Nigeria. We all belong here. And we all have the right to self-determination. We should respect that right and do unto others what we will do unto ourselves. There are many other countries that have ethnic and religious diversity far greater than what we have here in Nigeria. But something that distinguishes us from them, be it Singapore, United States, they have been able to respect the rule of law so that any bigot, any nepotic individual who tramples on the right of anyone especially that of the minority, the rule of law will catch up. Satan will only find a hole if there is a crack in that rule of law.

Every ethnic group is an oppressed minority somewhere. Every group is a religious and ethnic minority somewhere. Every majority or settler is an indigene somewhere. In one way, we are all settlers; we just don’t remember where we came from or why we came.

But ultimately, we are all visitors to this planet, from God we come and to Him we return. As Muslim delegates, we come in brotherhood, as brothers and friends to solve our common problems and not as adversaries.

We come against the exploitation of religion and religious sentiments. We come against stereotyping, stigmatizing and dehumanizing of each other. We come against the use of religion as a political decoy and as a distraction from the critical things that bedevil our nation.

I pray that at the end of this conference, we will all grow in our humanity and respect for each
other.

Being the transcript of a speech by Alh. Nurudeen Lemu, a National Conference delegate from the Supreme Council for Islamic Affairs in the ongoing confab. Alh. Lemu is from Niger State. His speech was greeted with a standing ovation by delegates. Unity founded on tolerance, particularly the rule of law in Nigeria has been lacking.

Transcript Source: Naira Land

Image: http://www.news247.com.ng

To My Fellow Youth of Our Dear Nation Chima Williams Iheme

Image from Freelanceglobalmedia.com

Image from Freelanceglobalmedia.com

I have a few things to remind us about. Have you realised yet that the term “getting employed” is proverbially diverse with meanings and remains always a matter of interpretation? The mainstream understanding about getting employed usually refers to a situation where a person secures a paid salary job as against when she or he engages in some lawful activities which as well bring profits. The idea that it is the duty of government to create jobs ought to have outlived its usefulness in an economic system that is akin to capitalism, to embrace the
much more useful idea that the growth of our economy remains actively in the hands of private individuals. The time of dirigisme in which the state wholly controls the economy has passed, although our government has still got a lot to contribute in our economic growth by using the nation’s resources to provide basic infrastructures like steady power, security, good roads, etc that will ensure the smooth running of businesses and employment creations, as well as attract foreign direct investors. When basic infrastructures are in place, thereby reducing the
cost of doing business and increasing the probability of business successes, acquiring sufficient credit from banks and venture capitalists may become easier than we have now.

The idea of doing business and expanding the economy ought to be taught and heeded to like an article of faith by youth whose country is heavily dependent on diminishing natural resources as the major source of its income. Of course, the discovery of crude oil and natural gas has perhaps been of great disservice to us so far as it is highly responsible for the escalation of bribery and corruption in our system. We have abandoned our culture for hard work and perseverance which thrived in the 70s and once kept us as the highest producers/exporters of
some agricultural products in Africa, in preference to being peddlers of the “national cake” syndrome with all of its ravaging effects. We all know that with agriculture for instance in the 70’s our naira currency ranked higher in value than the US dollar and Nigeria was home for many foreigners who came for greener opportunities. Many of our state-of-the-art universities in terms of structures (which of course are now lacking maintenance) were built
with agricultural proceeds. In fact, since the oil boom, our country has not been able to replicate the quality of most of the universities that were constructed in the 70’s. Our educational system was viable and life was far better than it is now. If we had sustained that tempo of growth without the interference of oil boom, we all could guess where we would be now. Or the oil boom would have become a blessing if we had built and sustained transparent institutions that could frustrate the antics of corruption.

One crucial lesson could however be drawn from the three decades of economic experiments since the 70s. The lesson is that the economic betterment of the average Nigerian cannot depend on crude oil and natural gas but on something more steadfast. It’s time we begin to retrace our steps to the junction where we got diverted so as to unlearn certain attitudes to life as well as embrace new ones that could be of sustainable value to our overall growth.

As I already stated, we must have the basic infrastructures in place before doing business becomes a viable tool that could help unscrew our current economic quagmire. This goes to say that we must fulfill our duty to elect true leaders who can make good use of our national resources to provide our basic needs as a country. We must not assist politicians to rig elections because that way we endanger our lives as well as help them to screw up younger generations. Part of our duty instead should be how to become true watchdogs to the system and prevent politicians from rigging elections, and not becoming vehicles through which elections are rigged. We must learn from the experiences of those nations who have walked on the painful path of actualising democracy but are now reaping the fruits of their perseverance and labour. When ASUU goes on strike in agitation for improved education for the system, when we have no steady power supply even though we have abundant natural gas, when our
loved ones die in motor accidents due to bad roads, when they die in hospitals due to ill-equipped facilities, when they die as a result of consuming dangerous products in the market because someone who could have done quality
checks was bribed, when they die on plane crashes for the same reason, when they get attacked and killed by armed robbers or get kidnapped due to poor security apparatuses, and so on, we the youth are partly responsible
for all this if we have in one way or the other assisted in rigging elections and implanting visionless leaders in positions or have watered the seeds of injustices through our collective docility. It is high time we stopped being impersonal about these collective issues that are haunting us badly whether you consider yourself as rich or poor because no one can be truly happy in an unhappy environment. We must never assist anyone who is further dragging us to economic abyss to succeed by helping him/her to rig elections. The youth with their formidable valour can actually bring about a meaningful change to any system if they decide to realise the truth and pursue it no matter where it leads. We must help ourselves now and the generations to come by actively ensuring that good leaders are elected and held accountable.

When we have elected credible leaders, we must follow them up to ensure accountability. If we were doing this, we wouldn’t have lost $US400billion dollars so far to oil theft as the World Bank’s study revealed. Yet a graduate youth corp member goes home with a monthly salary of N19,800 while the country can afford to pay a senator close to N12million per month, and we still beg our senators to make good laws or at least revise the ones we copied from countries long time ago so that we can move forward. You see, we must not be docile when leaders don’t live up to their mandates, because we always are the ultimate victims of their non-performance. There is nothing wrong and illegal in organising peaceful rallies to register disagreement with government actions and policies or speak out without bad sentiments in the media so as to spread true awareness and achieve a more concerted effort to fight against
corruption and injustices. No one can do it for us but us. Remaining afraid to act is what has kept us in this pitiable condition. We are now a shadow of ourselves as a nation and life has become nightmarish to the youth whose ambitions have been greatly debilitated due to the misuse of our national resources. If and when our truly elected leaders emerge and put enough infrastructures in place, I bet that foreign direct investors and venture capitalists will start to flood into our country to invest because we have a high population of 170 million people whose patronages can make any business to blossom. Our population could become a blessing instead of the burden it currently is, but we all must first help to fix our home before the blessing aspect materialises.

Then we must begin to learn how to create wealth and employment by doing legitimate businesses of our choices. An economy that is 90 percent dependent on crude oil and gas exports is as dangerous as a time bomb which we all are responsible to prevent from
detonation. Our agricultural, health, education, in fact none of our sectors is fully tapped yet, and these are lucrative areas of business that can match with everyone’s formal or informal skills. Many of us nowadays (including those who studied agriculture in higher institutions) shy away from engaging in agriculture due to their polluted idea about being employed. They are ashamed of being called farmers. Don’t you realise it yet that we need to change our mindset because in many countries farmers are indeed the richest set of individuals. The truth is that agriculture which brought us to limelight in the 70’s, cures two main problems. It reduces unemployment as well as provides enough food for our teeming population. When we begin to engage fully in productive activities (and not merely wait for the “national cake” or subjectively deciding on issues based on ethnic lines) it will help to restore the hard work and perseverance values we once had in abundance in the 70’s and then could pass them on as legacies to generations to come. Until a kid in the kindergarten stops to say that s/he wants to become a politician, then we have not tried enough to restore these inestimable value which are cardinal to success. Surely we all will continue to be the ultimate losers, and may not be exempted when our historians begin to write the names of failures.

Chima Williams Iheme is a lawyer in Nigeria and currently a doctoral candidate with research focus on secured transactions law at the Central European University, Budapest, Hungary. He is interested in Human Rights issues as well issues which touch on overall human development.

Nigerian Youths Need to Unite for Growth and Development by Laila of Kaduna

I have been asked both in Nigeria and in other countries, why am I so passionate and want to help nigerian youth. People who personally know me say they can see the passion in my eyes when i talk about it. I will make it very simple and short.

I truly believe things can change and the ones to bring about changes will be the youth. There is a long way ahead, before we can see changes, and I am the first to admit it. But, it can be done. I have so much faith in the youth. I talked to so many of them and there are some bright young minds among us, but for reasons of poverty and other challenges, they do not have options and even feel depressed and angry, not to mention having feelings of hate.

Nobody was born with such feelings; feelings are learned through the years. I always tell such young people: “hold it right there.” They need to be taught that things cannot, and should not be changed by violence, hate, imposing fear in others. And besides that, these negative feelings affect their health.

A long time ago, I introduced in my life (among other things) the following concept: that even if I
am alone, I shall not allow myself to utter any bad words, because whatever comes out of your mouth, defines you as a person. Anything that you put out into the Universe, it will be given back to you.

I look forward to that day, when any of our youths will graduate to be invited at his/her graduation or to a new work place and my smile will beam from one end to the other and I shall proudly say: “that is my adoptive son/daughter….he/she has made it.” That is going to be my biggest reward. I will do it, in spite of all hurdles and attacks and difficulties thrown at me by certain politicians, by certain greedy individuals who put their ambitious plans for power ahead of being human. Some people told me that maybe even my life will be in danger. Well, if I haven’t died until now, it means there is a purpose to me being alive and feeling better than never before.

To our Nigerian Youth, I would like you to know that I believe in you and there are some other people who also believe in you. Only together, only by listening and learning from others’ experiences, we shall be successful.

Peel the many layers of different attitudes, beliefs from yourself and reach your core, your substance. I know that is the hardest thing to do and admit, but be honest with yourself. You have to desire change with all your might. Acting on impulse, or foolishly will not help you. Use your brain, open up.
Cut the cords to all the old ways that did not work. There is light at the end of the tunnel, believe me.

And I shall extend my hand and my heart to all of you and so are the others who understand my vision, my desire. We shall be there to train you, guide you, counsel you, defend you…and the destination is beautiful. You and me and everyone else shall enjoy the view. I believe in you all. “All for One and One for All”

Laila Stocky, known as Laila of Kaduna, was born in Romania. Multilingual, she has spent many years in Nigeria, and has a passion and vision for youth development as a tool for national advancement. She is the Founder of the new MYDEN (Movement for Youth Development in Nigeria).

Image from Nigeriamasterweb.com

How Technology is Changing Lives and the Impact on National Development by Odumody Nnamdi Lionel

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Ever since the US Military invented the internet in the 20th Century for gathering and sharing information, it was Tim Benner Lee who invented the worldwide web in 1993 to make information more accessible. But Microsoft Mogul Bill Gate’s Internet Explorer opened the whole world to the internet, before other browsers like Mozilla, Chrome and others came on board.

Ever since human creation, technology has had the greatest impact on human civilisation, both positively and negatively. In the area of education, traditionally printed books and magazines are gradually been replaced by digital ebooks and magazines available on various electronic media such as Amazon’s Kindle, and for download on Ipads, Samsung Galaxy Tabs and other Tablets.

In Osun State of Nigeria for instance, the State Government has given over 5,000 tablets (Opon Imo: Tablet of Knowledge) with ebooks comprising the curriculum of the secondary school students of its public secondary schools. Also in Nigeria, communities are now building e-Libraries to enhance 21st Century Education. Akwa Ibom State was the first state in Nigeria and province in West Africa to build an e-Library. Classrooms are now wired with Wifi (Wireless Fidelity) where students can receive lectures and do research even when their lecturer is not physically present.

In terms of communication, it is now possible to speak with someone who is thousands of miles apart from you, even without seeing him or her in person through various electronic media such as email, online chat rooms like Yahoo Messenger, mobile chat applications like BBM, 2go, What’s App, WeChat, including popular social networking sites like Facebook, Twitter, Google + and other forms of social media.

Also through mobile phones running on CDMA or GSM Technology, phone calls can be made across boundaries. For business men, Telepresence is another means of communicating with your business partners across the globe without being present. Commercial activities like buying and selling of goods are gradually giving way to e-Commerce. ade-in-Nigeria-mobile-phones-620x330

For luxurious bus travellers, Oya.com.ng and Bus.com.ng are two websites where you can book and purchase your tickets with a discount rate, thereby reducing the stress of going to bus stations to purchase your ticket on departure day. For shopping Amazon, Jumia, Konga and many others now offer different goods online for consumers to purchase, delivered at their doorstep once payments have been confirmed. For Air travellers and Hotel accommodation seekers, websites like Wakanow, Travelocity, Priceline, Airbnb, Jovago, WeGo and Hotels.com.ng offer booking services online.An-online-retailer-360x261

In the media industry, technology is used to monitor elections in a particular locations, report electoral offences, cover protests in the harshest autocracies and providing electronic means of uploading them online. Through e-voting, elections in advanced societies are being done online, as against the traditional open or secret ballot systems.

It is not different in the fast-growing entertainment industry in Nigeria, where some legally free videos or sold videos are now available for view and download on Youtube, Netflix, and IrokoTV locally. Music is now being easily promoted online as against print and electronic media like TV and Radio Stations, and distributed through I-Tunes, Amazon, CD Baby, Spotify, Iroking and Spinlet
which is a more verifiable model.

In Sports, through the use of goal line technology, a goal scored but not noticed by the referee or his assistants could be awarded. Also offences committed during a match and not booked by the referee could be awarded to the culprit by the Sports Authority after playback.

For foodlovers, websites like takeaway.com offer food booking services which cover restaurants across the globe. For Auctions, discount shoppers and price comparisons, Ebay, Group On and locally, Deal Dey, offer such food booking services.

Odumody Nnamdi Lionel is a graduate of International Relations from Covenant University, Ota. He is an entrepreneur, consultant who is passionate about the economic development of Africa. You can connect with him on Facebook-Odumody Nnamdi Lionel, Twitter@Odumody Nnamdi or email, nalion2002@yahoo.com, 2348068802713

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